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Mevlana Celaleddin-i Rumi's life

clock03-13-2010, 09:52 PM
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Bu konu en son: 03-16-2010 tarihinde, saat: 01:26 AM düzenlenmiştir. Konuyu düzenleyen: zleeha
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Born in the City of Balkh in Afghanistan , Mevlana lived most of his life in Konya , seat of the Seljuk Empire , located in present day Turkiye . The son and heir to the position of a noted Theologian and Mystic , Mevlana was jarred out of his comfortable ways and beliefs by a mysterious dervish named Shems of Tebriz . The moment of the meeting of Mevlana and Shems is referred to as the 'meeting of two seas' . Each of them had attained a spiritual awareness of depth and breadth which distinguished them from others . Now these two would complete each other in the boundless Sea of Unity .

Shems' way of attracting Mevlana's attention was by asking whether the Prophet Mohammed or the Mystic Beyazid-i Bestami was greater. This was a rather shocking question, but Mevlana without hesitation replied that of course, the Prophet is the greater of the two. At this Shems' fiery manner softened a little. Then he continued , " But Lord Mohammed said, 'God! I glorify You. We do not know Your worth.' Whereas Beyazid-i Bestami said, 'I glorify myself, my reputation is great because there is no Being but God in every particle of my body.' How can you explain this? " Mevlana had anticipated this, and replied immediately, "The Lord Mohammed spoke these words because each day he progressed many stages forward; and each time he reached a new level of understanding, he begged God's forgiveness for his previous knowledge and errors. The Prophet had the endurance to contemplate God in abstraction, purified of all else, in all His manifestations, without remaining at any one stage of judgement. But Bestami was carried away by his arrival at the very first stage and, having been intoxicated by this attainment, got no further..."

Overwhelmed by the profundity of this answer, Shems fell to the ground senseless. After Mevlana helped him up, they embraced as long lost lovers and without a word, set out arm in arm for Mevlana's house at medrese. The townsfolk looked on in confusion and astonishment as their dignified Mevlana walked away with this disheveled strange dervish.

It was Shems who kindled the spark of passion for the Divine in Mevlana. Mevlana's whole life of book learning, canonical views, and conservative behavior changed radically as the burning of Divine Love swept through him. A steady husband and father, Mevlana had taught in the medrese (a center of learning similar to a university of the time), given judgements on religious matters, and drawn a following. Now he was completely absorbed with Shems, stayed in seclusion with him for months, and humbled himself in his attempt to meet his every wish.

Mevlana's students and disciples couldn't bear to see this person they held in such high esteem submitting himself to an unknown, again dervish who was uninterested in endearing himself to anyone except Mevlana. Soon their displeasure turned to actual threats against Shems, and one day he disappeared. Because those followers were unable to comprehend the meaning and depth of the relationship between Mevlana and Shems, they were unprepared for Mevlana's reaction to Shems' disappearance. Instead of returning to his former ways and relationships, Mevlana became crazed with longing and spent days and nights whirling in the Sema (2) that Shems had given him a taste for, and feverishly reciting love poems that sprang from the anguish and longing within him.

When it was learned that Shems was in Damascus, Mevlana's oldest son Sultan Veled set out to try to bring him back. Now Mevlana was overcome with anticipation--He was returning! The one who had revealed to him Divine Love in man ! The on who had brought him to Divine Love! The one who had become Divine Love! Poetry, music, Sema ecstasy!

And for some time after Shems' return things went well. The malcontents were remorseful and on their best behavior , Mevlana gave a young woman of his household to Shems in marriage , and the loving relationship between Shems and Mevlana reached new depths as Mevlana matured in this Sea of the Divine .

The distinction between lover and beloved was being obliterated . In response to Sultan Veled's asking Shems to give him what he had given to Mevlana , Shems replied that nothing of himself , no Shems , existed any longer . He told Veled that he could find Shems only in Mevlana now . As for Mevlana , through his poems we see him losing his individual identity and acknowledging Shems as the embodiment of the Divine in which he had 'drowned' .

But things were not to continue like this for long . Shems' young wife died rather suddenly and the former agitators used this as an excuse to openly disparage Shems , and actually threatened his life , saying the young woman had been unable to bear such a husband and had pined away in sadness . Their menacing became bolder until one night when Shems left the room where he was chatting with Mevlana and stepped outside in response to a call , the threats were brought to realization . Nothing was found of Shems but a few drops of blood on the threshold . Though Mevlana searched for Shems as at his first disappearance , this time there was to be no delivery from the loss .

One time they had asked Mevlana to describe his life and he replied , " I was raw . I cooked . I burned . " Now was the time of burning , of reaching total unity , of realizing Shems within himself . They were not two individuals but rather two bodies with one soul . The longing , the anguish that Mevlana was living were essential . Shems was not anywhere but within Mevlana himself ; he had merely been a bodily form presenting to Mevlana the reflection of that Divine within himself .

After a time Mevlana's extraordinary need for a mirror for his love was met by Sheik Selahaddin ' Zarkubi ' (Goldsmith) , a former disciple of Seyyid Burhaneddin of Tirmiz ( Mevlana's early mentor and after his father , the one with the greatest influence on his introduction to spirituality along with knowledge ) .

Mevlana now held Selahaddin up as a sheik to his disciples , as a spiritual model . Again there were complaints and murmuring , this time because of the goldsmith's lack of formal education . They had not admired Shems , But at least they had realized that he was a well-educated person . Now an illiterate craftsman was being presented to them as their spiritual master . They were unable to perceive the beauty , the greatness , the purity of the true 'self ' of Selahaddin, and thus missed out on the graces possible from his words and example.

No matter. For a time Mevlana found the love born of Shems in the pure face shining with inner light and the truly fervent hearth of Selahaddin. In one poem Mevlana said: Last year he suddenly appeared in a red caftan, his face shining. This year he has come again, wrapped in a gray cloak. He changed his apparel and came... When Mevlana was asked, "Who is a man of wisdom ?", he answered thus, " The wise one is he who, when you're silent, speaks of your inner secrets. That man is Sheik Selahaddin."

With an awareness that his worldly time was nearing its end, Sheik Selahaddin looked forward to his death; and in the winter of 1258 he was released from the prison of the body and re-united with the Source of all Love in the Divine.

Mevlana had lost first his father Sultanul Ulema Bahaeddin Veled, then Seyyid Burhaneddin, then Shems, and now Sheik Selahaddin. Each lost left its mark and threw Mevlana deeper into the inner world where he burned in spiritual communion. This burning was bringing him ever closer to becoming the Mevlana he was to be.

The calm peacefulness of Sheik Selahaddin was just what Mevlana had needed, but now it was time for a new light to shine for Mevlana, the light which would enable the immortal masterpiece The Mesnevi to come into being. This light was Husameddin Chelebi.

Initiated into the beauties of the spiritual path by both Shems and Sheik Selahaddin, Husameddin Chelebi had been participating in the Sema and music assemblies and Mevlana's discourses for years. He was spiritually matured and ready to bear the great responsibility of taking down the words of Mevlana which whereto flow and become the six volume poem The Mesnevi. In Husameddin Chelebi Mevlana again found the embodiment of Shems. Mevlana's exuberance now took on a calmness and maturity of thought. Husameddin Chelebi was aware of Mevlana's mature readiness, and one day suggested that Mevlana produce a work that would encompass his thoughts and ideas in a form that would touch people and be a guide to them in their spiritual seeking. With a smile that sublime Lover of God reached up and took a piece of paper from within the folds of his turban and preferred in to Chelebi to read. It was the first 18 verses of what was to be the Book of Realities, the book revealing secrets unsaid before, The Light offered to man as a help in realizing God, The Mesnevi .

The passionate poems of Love and longing which make up to the Divan-i Kebir are often too wild in their passion, too outrageously uninhibited to be easily tolerated as man speaking to and of his God. So in the six volumes of rhyming couplets of the Mesnevi, Mevlana deliberately set out to write a guide for those seeking the essence of this Divine Love and Passion. Using fables and folk stories, examples of the sacred and the profane, Mevlana interwove hundreds of stories in which the reader could see his own fallible and faults, and also discover to means of abandoning them and taking on the characteristics of the Divine. Time and again Mevlana emphasizes his essential premise of the need for a living guide in the form of a spiritual master... A human being, a Perfect Human Being to lead one to the Divine.

There is another book based on the discourses and the conversations between the master and disciple--Mevlana and Suleyman Pervane. Called Fihi Ma Fih (3), it offers in prose style Mevlana's views on God, heaven and earth, the Universal Intellect and Partial Intellect, and more. It is a controlled and scholarly work, maintaining a dignified pace while The Mesnevi unrestrainedly sweeps along. Different only in style and form, there is nothing contradictory in the three works, The Divani Kebir, The Mesnevi, Fihi Ma Fih . The intellect , the soul and the love of the soul are all satisfied .

Remember the joy , the craziness of your first love ? Puppy love ? Summer Love ? High School Romance ? It doesn't matter -- it was real ! Filling pages in your notebook with ' his ' name . Hanging out on the corner of ' her ' street . Playing the same record over and over because you two had first heard it together and it was ' your ' song... Perhaps the only time of totally unaffected love . Mevlana experienced love of the Divine , love of his Creator , with total exuberance and intoxication. God incarnate in Shems , in Selahaddin , in Chelebi . The passion for God leaves earthly loves far behind , yet Mevlana had this to say , " All loves lead to the Divine ."

Turning in the Sema and the pouring forth of poetry sprang from the intense passion Mevlana was living . There was nothing static or passive about the love of Mevlana . Times of silent introspection and contemplation interspersed with rapturous activity...He was now Lover , now Beloved , now the very Spirit of Love itself , the Divine manifested as each of these within the human .

The years of fasting and abstinence had taken their toll on Mevlana's body , and in the fall of 1273 he fell ill . On his deathbed he comforted his family and friends thus , " Don't grieve that I am leaving this world . Whatever may happen to you , I am with you . As our Prophet said , ' Both my life and my death are auspicious for you .' The purpose of my life was to show the true path and my death is to aid you along the way . "
clock03-13-2010, 09:59 PM
Yorum: #2
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Mevlana, who considered every kind of perfection in love only, write all his works on love. For, love i the basis and essence of life. The reason for the creation of the universe is love. Furthermore , God's saying, 'If you were not, I wouldn't hae created those skies" indicates that the sole purpose of creating the universe is God's love for the Prophet Muhammed. Since the origin of the creating is love. Love of God, which is the highest points of life, is the most precious thing. Starting from the point , Mevlana renounced this divine love in thousands of verses. It is possible to classify his thoughts on love under four hedings: comparison between intellect and love/ ascendancy and value of love which is for mortal beings; and finally, the pitiable situation of those who have not a share in love.
In sufi thought, intellect and science are incompetent in comprehending metaphysical realities. They may lead a man to a certain point, but not to the target. However, if a man has wings of love , he becomes lofty in a way that he can never imagine. Just as was the case in the night journey (Miraj/ in wich the prophet Muhammed is related t have ascended from Jerusalem to Heaven, after having been conveyed to the former from Mecca upon the beast named buraq)... In that holy night , while the Prophet and Gabriel were ascending through the levels of ky , Gabriel stopped suddenly when they arrived in Sidrat al Munteha (the lote-tree in seventh Heaven, beyond which neither angel nor prophet passes , and which shades the water and Paradise) and said , ' I will burn up if I go a step further' . But the Prophet Muhammed passed the sidrah and came closer to God; now he was at a point of " aw adna" (The Qur'an , 53/9), which is the last point of being closer to God. Sidrat al Munteha is the last point where angels and prophets could go . In another words, it is the places where everything ends except the Divine Order (Amr-i Ilahi) . So , Sufis consider Gabriel as the symbol of human conception, science and intellect , and the Prophet Muhammed as the pattern of heart and love that transcends the restricted limits of science and intellect.
He points this as follows:
" When a man's understanding has been his tacher, after this the undersaning becomes his pupil.
The understanding says, like Gabriel, 'O Ahmad (Muhammed), if I take one (more) step , it will burn me; Leave me, henceforth advance (alone): this is my limit, O Sultan of soul ! " (Mesnevi , I / 1112-14)
Hence, Mevlana considered love as a state of whih every sufi must have experience. He is of the opinion that the heart that is drowned in God , the Beloved One, with love is precious and preferable. (Mesnevi,I/1853). Man , like Gabriel, canot reach God with his intellect , anstops on the half way. If we consider the distance between God and man as a sea , then intellect is a swimmer in that sea , and love is a ship. Swimming is a pleasant thing , but not enough for a voyage. The swimmer might get tired and be drowned at the end , but he who boards the ship reaches his goal.(Mesnevi IV/1423-27) .
On the other hand , it is a very tiring work to rach God with the renunciation of the world (zuhd) and devoutness (taqva) only. Perhaps, one man is many way achieve this. Thus , this is stated in the following prophetic saying : "Abu Bar (the second caliph after the Prophet Muhammed ) was not considered as superior over the other people because of his fasting and voluntary contribution of his almsgiving only . On the contrary , he was honoured by his strong belief (iman) in his heart." As was stated in this prophetic saying , Abu Bakr is superior to others not only for this prayers, fasting and almsgiving are being put in the scale , it out weighs everything. Hence the essential thing is love. (Fihi Mafih, 325-326)
As a matter of fact , the nature of this love cannot be explained by words, and squeezed between lines. Those who taste it can only appreciate its value:
Someone asked, " What is love?". I answered , " you will know when you become (lost in) me!" (Mecalis-i Saba, 82)
Mevlana's saying "You will kow when you become (lost in ) me!" states that the final stage of reaching God, that is , 'to know, find, become (God)' is only realized by love . Science and intellect may lead to the stage of knowing only. Again Mesnevi says :
"Whatever I say in exposition and explanation of Love, when I come to Love (itself) I am ashamed of that (explanation).
Whilst the pen was making haste in writing , it split upon itself as soon as it came to Love.
In expounding it (Love), the intellect lay down (helplessly) like an ass in the mud; it was Love (alone) that uttered the explanation of love and loverhood.
The proof of the sun is the sun (himself); if require the proof , do not avert your face from him."
(Mesnevi, I/ 112-116)
In the above lines , it is understood that love cannot be described by words, and it is stressed once again that intellect is helpless.
Mevlana stated in Mesnevi that he whose garment was rent by a mighty love was purged of covetousness nd all defect: and love was the physician of all our is and the remedy of our pide and vainglory; an also the earthly body soared the skies through love. By so saying , he clearly indicates that man was cleared off pride, worldly desire , envy, grudge, and many other eil habits through Divine Love only. If those who knew the spiritual world were in the majority in a society, all worldly worries and defects would be removed . On the other hand , Mevlana advisd that just as a man learned a trade to earn a livelihood for the body , we should learn trade to ear the Hereafter, that is , God's forgiveness, again, the earnings of religion were love. (Mesnevi, II/2592-2603)
As Yunus Emre -one of the most famous sufis in Anatolia- said , "The sect of love is a religion to me," Mevlana, too, said :
' Our Prophet 's way is Love,
We are the sons of Love, our mother is Love"
So Mevlana indicates that the essence of the four orthodox sects (namely , The Hanafism, Shafism, Hanbalism, Malikism) is love. What we understood from this is that those who follow the rituals of the religion only are the ones who are not aware of its essence , and busy with the husk. In fact , man must include love in his prayers , and worship God with great sincerity and intimacy.
Mevlana calls the love of God the only real love:
those loves which are for the sake of a colour (outward beauty) are not love: in the end they are a disgrace." Mesnevi , I/214)
" Because the love of the dead is not enduring, because the dead one never comes (back) to us.
(But) love of thliving is every moment fresher than a bud in the sprit and in the wine that increases ife.
Choose the love of Him from whose love all the prophets gained power and glory.
Do not say , "We have no admission to that King." Dealings wiyh the generous are not difficult." (Mesnevi,I/226-230)
"The lover of the whoe are not those who love the part: he that longed for the part failed to attain unto the whole"(Mesnevi, I/2903). With the latter verse, Mevlana indicates that the lovers of God do not value anything but God , and that those direct their love to the worldly things are deprived of God's love. However , sometimes there might be expection of this . If a man is decisive, sincere and in his love for the mortal, then this metaphorical love might lead himto the true love.
"If the lover of that (false) conception be sincere, that metaphor (unreal judgement) will lead him to the reality."
There is similar example of this in the Islamic literatures. Mejnun set out for his ove of Laila, but he finally reached the love of God.
But if a man has no share of love, whether it be metaphorical or true, Mevlana reprimands him severely:
"Since you do not fall in love, go and weave...
You have a lot to do, and your body and face have hundreds of different colours.
Since there is no wine of love in your skull.
Go, and lick the dishes of rich people in the kitchen..."
"When love has no care for him, he is left as a bird without wings. Alas for him then!" Mesnevi, I/31)
Mevlana, who found out that the essence of creation and man's exaltation of his worldly body was in love alone, never considered a loveless life as a real life:
"Luck becomes your sweetheart , if it becomes helpful.
Love helps you in your daily routines ,
Consider not the loveless life as life.
For , it will be out of consideration."
(Mecalis-i Sab'a,43)
clock07-07-2012, 03:10 PM
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